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Base station antenna design level trends
Apr 24, 2018

For the base station, one of the major principles of antenna design is miniaturization.

Antennas of different systems are designed together. In order to reduce costs and save space, they must be small enough. Therefore, antennas are required for multi-band, wide-band, multi-beam, MIMO/Massive MIMO, and MIMO isolation for antennas. Massive MIMO has some special requirements for the mixed mutual coupling of antennas.

In addition, the antenna needs to be tunable.

The first-generation antenna relied on mechanical tilting, and the third-generation realized remote ESC. If 5G can achieve self-tuning, it is very attractive.

For mobile terminals, the antenna requirements are also miniaturized, multiband, wideband, and tunable. Although these features are now available, the requirements of 5G will be more stringent.

In addition, the 5G mobile communication antenna also faces a new problem - coexistence.

To implement Massive MIMO, multiple antennas are required for transmission and reception, that is, multiple antennas with the same frequency (8 antennas, 16 antennas, ...). The biggest challenge that this multi-antenna system brings to the terminal is the coexistence problem.

How to reduce the mutual influence to couple, how to increase the isolation of the channel .... This puts forward new requirements for the 5G terminal antenna.

Specifically speaking, the following three points will be involved:

1. To reduce the mutual influence, especially the mutual interference between different functional modules and different frequency bands. Before the academic community believed that this situation would not exist, it did exist in the industry;

2. Decoupling. In a MIMO system, the mutual coupling of antennas will not only reduce the channel isolation, but also reduce the overall system's radiation efficiency. In addition, we cannot rely entirely on high-frequency millimeter waves to solve the performance increase. For example, 25GHz, 28GHz...60GHz all have system problems.

3. The de-correlation, which can be solved from the antenna and the circuit design, but the bandwidth of the solution through the circuit is very limited, it is difficult to meet the bandwidth of all frequency bands.

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