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Power splitter concepts and indicators
Mar 21, 2018

power splitter.jpg


Power splitter (full-scale power splitter) A device that divides the energy of an input signal into two or more equal-output devices. It can also synthesize multiple channels of signal energy into one output. This can also be called a combiner. . A certain degree of isolation should be ensured between the output ports of a power divider. The number of basic allocations is 2, 3, and 4, and multiple power allocations can be formed through their cascades. When using the power splitter, if an output port is not connected to the output signal, it must be connected to the matching load and should not be unloaded.


The main technical parameters of the power splitter include insertion loss, distribution loss, standing wave ratio, isolation between power distribution ports, power capacity and frequency bandwidth. The following table shows some typical indicators of the Broadband Cavity Power Splitter (Reference):

Bandwidth: This is the premise of various RF/microwave circuits. The design structure of the power divider is closely related to the operating frequency. You must first specify the operating frequency of the splitter to make the following design


Power loss: divided into distribution loss and insertion loss.


Distribution loss: The distribution loss from the main circuit to the tributary is essentially related to the power distribution ratio of the power splitter. The calculation formula is the ratio of the sum of the output power of all the channels and the input power. Generally, the ideal distribution loss is obtained by the following formula:


Ideal distribution loss (dB) = 10 log (1/N)

N is the number of splitters


Insertion loss: The insertion loss between the input and output is due to factors such as the non-ideality of the medium or the conductor of the transmission line (such as the microstrip line), and the loss due to the standing wave ratio at the input is considered.

 standing wave ratio: refers to the ratio between the maximum value of the voltage along the direction of signal transmission and the minimum value of the adjacent voltage. The smaller the voltage standing wave ratio of each port, the better.


Power Capacity: The maximum power that a circuit component can withstand.


In the distribution system, the power divider is a power divider as a downlink signal and a (small signal) combiner for an uplink signal. The power marked on the power splitter refers to the maximum input power of the input port, but as a (small-signal) combiner, it is not possible to input the signal at the output port at the marked power. The power splitter should not be used for high-power synthesis. Two high-power carrier signal synthesis is recommended to use 3dB bridge.


Isolation: The ratio of the power of the local oscillator or signal leaking to other ports to the original power. If input power from each tributary port can only be output from the main channel port and not from other tributaries, this requires sufficient isolation between the tributaries. Generally greater than 20dB.


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