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Inside the cavity coupler is 2 metal rods that make up the primary coupling. The microstrip coupler is internally composed of 2 microstrip lines, which is similar to a multi-stage coupled network.
Structurally speaking, the microstrip type utilizes a 1/4 wavelength microstrip line and the cavity type utilizes a resonant cavity. In contrast, microstrip devices are cheap but have an insertion loss of 0.5dB, while the cavity type is more expensive but the insertion loss is only 0.1dB.